International Journal of Scientific Trends <p><strong>International Journal of Scientific Trends- (IJST)</strong> is an open-access, peer-reviewed international journal. This scientific journal covers the multidisciplinary areas of study. The journal is published monthly (12 Issues per Year). The journal follows a double-blind peer review to ensure the quality of the published articles. The journal covers scientific trends and applied/ natural sciences studies. IJST is an interdisciplinary scientific journal. It aims to contribute to applied research and knowledge globally through published papers. The authors are requested to send original, high-quality research articles in following areas:</p> <ul> <li><strong>Medicine</strong></li> <li><strong>Pharmaceutical Sciences</strong></li> </ul> <ul> <li><strong>Dentistry</strong></li> </ul> <ul> <li><strong>Physical Therapy</strong></li> </ul> <ul> <li><strong>Veterinary Medicine</strong></li> </ul> <ul> <li><strong>Basic and biological sciences include biology, molecular biology, biotechnology, chemistry, physics, biophysics, geology, astronomy,</strong><strong> and environmental science.</strong></li> </ul> <ul> <li><strong>Mathematics, Engineering, and Computer Sciences</strong></li> <li><strong>Physical Education and Sports Science</strong></li> </ul> <ul> <li><strong>Agricultural Science</strong><br /><br /></li> </ul> <p>The journal covers original research articles, reviews, mini-reviews, Case studies, reports, letters, and commentaries. It provides free open access to the published articles, permitting users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, and search the full text. The copyrights of the published work are given to the authors. </p> <p><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Monthly (12 Issues per Year)</p> <p><strong>Accepted Language:</strong> English</p> <p><strong>ISSN (Online):</strong> 2980-4299 </p> <p><strong>ISSN (Print):</strong> 2980-4329</p> <div class="Categorie"><a href=""><strong>SJIF 2024:</strong> 6.531</a></div> <div class="Categorie"><a href=""><strong>ResearchBib:</strong> 8.65</a></div> en-US Mon, 04 Mar 2024 10:05:06 +0000 OJS 60 Technology Using Capabilities of Visual Programming Languages in Solving Engineering Problems <p>This article provides examples of Java programming language for solving technical problems of the university using modern visual methods of programming languages. Problem solving is illustrated by array examples in Java programming language.</p> Ergashev Nuriddin Gayratovich, Ruzimahammatov Sardor Safarali ugli Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 04 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 А Сritiсаl Pеriоd fоr Асquiring а Sесоnd Еnglish Lаnguаgе <p>Children learn language more easily than adults, although when and why this ability declines remains unclear for both empirical reasons (insufficient research) and conceptual reasons (I am confident that students who begin learning at different ages cannot independently itself to identify changes in basic learning abilities). We address both limitations with a dataset of unprecedented size (669,498 native and non-native English speakers) and a computational model that estimates the underlying movement trajectory. Develop ability by separating current age, age of first contact, and years of experience. This leads us to take the first direction, and he, like the graph, and discovers that this is what he is. DESLINES StefeDILU. This conclusion is true not only for “difficult” syntactic phenomena, but also for “easy” syntactic phenomena, which are usually mastered in the early stages of development. The results support the existence of a well-defined critical period for language acquisition, but the age of shift occurs much later than previously thought. The size of the data set also provides new insight into several other unresolved questions in language acquisition.</p> Dаdаbоеvа D.О. Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Characteristics and Methodical Basis of Increasing the Production of Agricultural Products <p>The world population is expected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050, which poses a serious challenge to food security. To meet the demand for food products, it is necessary to increase productivity in agriculture. This scientific article examines the characteristics and methodological bases necessary for increasing the production of agricultural products. We explore innovative technologies, sustainable practices and strategic approaches to optimize agricultural production and minimize environmental impact.</p> Ergasheva Yulduz Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Reading in Russian Language Lessons <p>This article discusses the process of reading as an important link in teaching Russian as a foreign language. The Role and Tasks of Reading Types in Russian Language Lessons.</p> Касимова Камила Махаммаджоновна Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 07 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Features of the Widespread Involvement of Introduction of Information and Communication Technologies in the Tax Administration of Developed Countries <p>In this article, the author analyzes in detail features of the widespread involvement of introduction of information and communication technologies in the tax administration of developed countries. As a result of the analysis, the author made relevant conclusions and recommendations.</p> Ergashev Ikrom Abdurasulovich Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 10 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Changes in the Jawbone and Teeth in Arthrosis of the Temporomandibular Joint <p>Arthrosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) poses significant challenges in dental and skeletal health. This article explores the intricate relationship between arthrosis of the TMJ and its impact on the jawbone and teeth. Degenerative changes within the TMJ, including cartilage erosion and osteophyte formation, lead to altered biomechanical forces on the jawbone, resulting in structural changes such as bone resorption and sclerosis. Dental manifestations, including malocclusion and tooth wear, further complicate the clinical picture. Diagnosis involves clinical evaluation and radiographic imaging, while treatment encompasses conservative and surgical interventions. A multidisciplinary approach is essential for managing symptoms and improving quality of life for affected individuals.</p> Zoyirov Tulqin Elnazarovich, Toshtemirova Mohira Mahmud qizi, Juraqulov Abbos G'ofurovich, Xudoyqulov Sardor Sobirovich Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Organization of Effective Use of Islamic Financing Opportunities in Uzbekistan: Problems and their Solutions <p>Based on the selection and implementation of the Islamic finance model acceptable for the conditions of development of the new Uzbekistan, the necessity and relevance of ensuring the effective use of Islamic financing opportunities for various projects are substantiated. The problems that have arisen in this situation have been identified. The following are given: a method of systematic research and evaluation of the level of effective use of financing opportunities for various projects in non-Islamic countries based on the rules of the five Islamic sects (Sharia school); ways to effectively use the opportunities of Islamic financing in the implementation of various projects in the conditions of the development of new Uzbekistan.</p> Saydirasulov Laziz Alimovich Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Vocabulary and Terminology Issues in Sci-Fi Translation <p>This article explores the challenges and implications of translating vocabulary and terminology in science fiction literature. Sci-fi genres often feature extensive world-building and use of specialized language, which can present unique difficulties for translators. In this article, we examine various strategies and approaches used by translators to navigate these challenges, including the impact of cultural differences and the importance of maintaining the integrity and tone of the original text. We also discuss the implications of vocabulary and terminology choices on the overall reader experience and interpretation of the text.</p> Mukhtorova Khafiza Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Research of the Structure of Somatic Pathology in Patients with Aphthous Stomatitis <p>One of the most important areas of modern dentistry is geriatric dentistry. To date, a large body of data on the dental status of the elderly and geriatric population has been published in the literature. Age-related biological changes are known to affect the condition of dental hard tissues, periodontal tissues, and oral mucosa. Geriatric patients receive dental treatment for oral mucosal diseases (COPD) of all taxonomic groups. Traumatic lesions, oral candidiasis, skin diseases, inflammatory (glossitis) and non-inflammatory (glossodynia) diseases of the tongue associated with psycho-emotional disorders, precancerous diseases and malignant neoplasms are often present. General (hypertension, diabetes, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system) and local factors (inadequate hygiene, lack of teeth, irrational prostheses, galvanic current) play an important role in exacerbating the severity of COP and periodontal disease in the elderly. An important risk factor in the elderly may be multiple periodontal diseases causing adverse drug reactions (NPRs) that complicate the course of COP. The combination of general and local adverse factors undoubtedly leads to a worsening of the disease course (decreased salivary secretion, microbial colonization) and deterioration of quality of life in this category of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of combination of COP disease with oral somatic pathology and local factors in elderly patients.</p> PhD Islamova Nilufar Bustanovna, Turdiyev Jahongir Avazbek ugli Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Hygienic Assessment of The Condition of The Oral Mucosa After Orthopedic Treatment <p>The most common causes of complications in the mouth and the unsuitability of fixed structures are considered to be inflammatory processes, caries and its complications (16,4–25,2 %) [7,8,12], thermal burns of the pulp (4.3%) [4,6,9], cementation of the supporting crowns (8-21% of all complications). These processes often develop in the area of the edge of artificial crowns and are caused by the destruction of the cement layer that fixes the non-removable prosthesis. One of the typical complications of dental prosthetics, which often develops within the first year after fixation of the artificial crown, is the exposure of the neck of the tooth root due to gum recession [3,5,11]. The occurrence of cervical or secondary caries under an artificial crown was noted in 1.78% of cases. This is above the average level of foreign ones (0.4%), but falls within the range of the given parameters (0-2.7%). The need for endodontic treatment is 4.63% [2,7,13], in foreign literature (0-6%) [1,3,14]. Papillitis, gingivitis and marginal periodontitis occurred in 1.07% of cases, in foreign researchers — 0.6%. In the long term, up to 5 years, the average parameters of the lesion of the marginal periodontium leveled out and amounted to 16.96%. Deep cracks, as well as chipping, and broken cladding were noted in 5.22% of cases [2,8,14]. In the dental practice of the world, there is a high frequency of various orthopedic and orthodontic defects, including forms manifested in the form of various degrees of adentia. The prevalence of adentia has increased significantly and according to the data is 35.4-62.9% [5,8.10]. Despite significant advances in the field of materials science and improvement of the quality of dental prostheses, various authors note complaints of intolerance in patients from 0.6 to 12% [1,8,11]. Many researchers note that patients with removable dentures have different levels of adaptive capabilities, the study of which makes it possible to predict the development of intolerance. When diagnosing and predicting intolerance to dentures, it will allow obtaining objective information about compensatory and adaptive reactions occurring during the use of removable dentures and developing preventive measures to accelerate the adaptive capabilities of the body [3,6,10]. Thus, there is a need to form a concept that makes it possible to offer modern methods of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of adentia, which have properties of action on oral homeostasis and the general condition of the body.</p> Islamova Nilufar Bustanovna, Turdiyev Jakhongir Avazbek ugli Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Complications Arising in the Oral Cavity after Polychemotherapy in Patients with Hemablastoses <p>Today it is believed that cancer does not appear immediately, but "is the last link in a long chain of preceding changes that can be call them precancerous or precancerous." This postulate formulates the first law of malignant oncology: every cancer has its own precancer, but not every precancer turns into cancer. Precancerous conditions, the presence of which is now generally recognized, are divided into obligate and facultative (Beck, 1933). The former go wrong in 80-85% of cases, the latter in 15-20%. Despite the significant variety of precancerous lesions of the skin and mucous membrane, they are expressed by some common morphological signs. These are parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis and other dyskeratotic phenomena. Using this feature of precancerous (and even more so cancerous tumors), it is possible to identify them at a more or less early date, using appropriate diagnostic methods. Methods of diagnosis of precancerous and malignant tumors: stomatoscopy, cytological examination (by puncture, scraping, flushing) and histological (urgent and planned biopsy).</p> Islamova Nilufar Bustanovna, Turdiev Zhakhongir Avazbek ugli Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Further Research the Features of the Use of Metal-Ceramic Structures in Anomalies of Development and Position of Teeth <p>Anomalies of the maxilla are very common. According to various authors (1, 5), the prevalence in adults ranges from 28.8 to 37%. With regard to dental deformities, they are even more common, especially in patients with occlusal abnormalities complicated by dental defects. According to a number of studies (2), such deformities are found in 67.1 to 69.4% of patients with partial tooth loss. Various preparation methods for prosthodontics have been described in the dental literature (3, 4, 6). However, many problems remain unresolved. The purpose of this study is to identify appropriate preparation and prosthetic methods for the alveolar system in various types of abnormalities and developmental pathologies in adult patients.</p> PhD Islamova Nilufar Bustanovna, Abdulaxatov Abdug’affor Abdusattor ugli Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness of the Use of the Drug "Proroot MTA" in the Therapeutic and Surgical Treatment of Periodontitis <p>During the in vitro and in vivo ProRoot MTA study, compliance with the requirements for an ideal material was revealed. These properties make it possible to use ProRoot MTA for various indications. The article describes two studies devoted to the use of this material in the biological treatment of pulpitis of permanent teeth and retrograde filling of teeth with destructive periapical processes. ProRoot MTA material can be used in an outpatient clinic in various clinical situations, taking into account the indications of the use of the material.</p> Islamova Nilufar Bustanovna, Abdulaxatov Abdugaffor Abdusattor ugli Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Complications Arising in the Oral Cavity after Polychemotherapy in Patients with Hemablastosis <p>Background: Today, it is believed that cancer does not appear immediately, but "is the last link in a long chain of changes that precede it, which can be to be called precancerous or precancerous." This postulate formulates the first law of malignant oncology: every cancer has its precancer, but not every precancer turns into cancer. Precancerous conditions, the presence of which is now generally recognized, are divided into obligate and facultative (Beck, 1933).</p> Исламова Нилуфар Бустановна, Турдиев Жахонгир Авазбек угли Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Errors and Complications in the Use of Endocal Structures Used in Dentistry <p>1. In clinical practice, in 77.2 ± 2.8% of cases, various clinical errors and complications occurred during the restoration of defects in the crown part of sc teeth. Molar was less detected in the recovery of SC defects in solid tissue (75.2 ± 2.5%) and premolecular (76.5 ± 2.3%) with significantly higher levels of errors and complications in the recovery of SC defects, and sc defects in the coronary coronary part. teeth (64, 5 ± 2.3%). 2. High indicators of defect levels of completed SC treatment are determined (1,67 ± 0.08). Significantly large indicators of completed treatment defects were detected in the lower jaw (1.84 ± 1.07), defects in the corronal part of the teeth (0.64 ± 0.04), sc teeth during crown restoration. premolars (1,78 ± 0.05) and molars (1,80 ± 0.11). 3. The methodological approaches we propose will help prevent and eliminate clinical errors and complications in the treatment of patients with dental structures with severe dental defects.</p> Islamova Nilufar Bustanovna, Abdulaxatov Abdug’affor Abdusattor o’g’li Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological Changes in Oral Organs and Tissues in Women after Menopause and their Analysis <p>During menopause, irreversible changes in the hormonal function of the ovaries occur, the concentration of estrogens decreases. It is during this period that a progressive increase in various diseases is noted [8]. The study of the dental status in menopausal women has proven the existence of a relationship between a decrease in estrogen concentration and a sharp increase in dental diseases [4]. Because the oral mucosa and salivary glands contain estrogen receptors, changes in hormonal levels can be seen directly in the mouth. Leimola-Virtanen et al confirmed the presence of estrogen mRNA and immunoreactive protein in the oral mucosa and salivary glands, which also confirms its biological role [11]. Thus, the climacteric period is characterized by a disorder of metabolism and function in the tissues of the oral cavity [6]. As a result, tooth loss, periodontal disease, increased bone resorption of the alveolar processes are observed.</p> Islamova Nilufar Bustanovna, Abdulaxatov Abdugaffor Abdusattor ugli Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000